Poland is still mostly a country of emigration, which features a substantial degree of departures. For many years now the rate of emigration continues to amount to approx. 2 million people. At the end of 2015, nearly 2.4 million Polish citizens resided abroad. Simultaneously, there is substantial transformation in the demographic structure of emigrants and emigration directions, and the effects of departures are becoming increasingly noticeable in the demographic and economic fields. Emigration abroad is thus becoming a huge challenge for the development of many Polish regions. Simultaneously, in recent years the number of arriving foreigners increased substantially. It is estimated that over 1.5 million foreigners resided in Poland in 2016. It is expected that along with the increasing social and economic appeal, Poland will attract increasing numbers of immigrants. The difference between emigration and immigration flows reduces gradually and Poland is becoming a country of immigration instead of emigration. It is expected that around 2020 Poland will become a country of net immigration.