Paper Submission: Closed

ISBN : 978-0-9753393-7-4

  • Welcome
  • Call for Papers
  • Conference Committee
  • Conference Themes
  • Special Topics Sessions
  • Virtual Presentation
  • Important Dates
  • Registration
  • Venue and Hotel Information


The 8th IBIMA conference on Information Management in the Networked Economy will address a range of important themes with respect to Information management its impact on organizations, governments, and societies. 

The conference will include numerous papers and workshop presentations by academics and researchers from around the globe. Conference participants are welcome to submit full papers, short papers, extended abstracts, paper drafts, or invited session proposals. Submitted paper will be fully refereed and published in electronic formats.  Please refer to call for papers.

For those unable to attend the conference in person, virtual presentations are available. Virtual presentations allow participants to submit papers for refereeing and publication in the conference proceedings. Virtual participants will receive a full copy of the conference proceedings in electronic format by mail.

The conference proceedings will be classified in

  • EBSCO database
  • Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) index 
  • CSA (Cambridge Scientific Abstracts) index
  • InterDok

Virtual Phase Submission is closed                         

Submissions instructions: Submit 2 files (in Microsoft Word OR in pdf)
First file with just complete author(s) information and e-mail(s)
Second file with just the paper without author(s) information for review purposes

If you are submitting to a special track, please indicate that in your e-mail

Call for Papers

Interested academics and practitioners are invited to submit*:

  • Research papers: complete papers (5000 words max.) with complete references section. 
  • Short papers: this could be research in progress, abstracts, ideas you would like to explore with audiance at the conference, or draft of papers for possible co-authorship:  (max. 5 pages or 1000 words) 

IBIMA focuses on real-world business applications. Therefore, submitted papers should highlight the benefits and applications of managing information in industry, government, and services.  The idea of the conference is to discuss how to solve business problems or take advantage of new opportunities using IT.  All papers will be directed to the appropriate  theme and/or track. All accepted papers will be published in the conference proceedings. Virtual presentation is available if you are unable to attend in person.

Papers will be evaluated for originality, significance, clarity, and contribution.  It is IBIMA policy to send complete papers to two reviewers for full blind peer review and to send a summary of review back to the author(s). Short papers/abstracts will be reviewed by reviewer and/or the editor.  All review comments and suggestions should be addressed in the final submission.  Submitted Papers must not have been previously published or currently submitted for publication elsewhere.

Conference proceedings will be published as an e-book on a CD (ISBN:0-9753393-7-0)


*IBIMA reserves the right to accept or reject any research/short paper proposal/submission. Reasons for rejection include, but are not limited to: topics not fitting the conference program main theme or panel subjects, insufficient space on the conference program, failure to meet professional obligations in prior IBIMA conferences (e.g., not completing a paper, not delivering a paper on time, failure to appear for a scheduled slot), failure to register for the conference, unprofessional conduct, or any other reason. In some cases, IBIMA reserve the right to request partial/full registration fee payement before processing the submission and sending it to reviewers.

Conference Committees

Conference Chair

Khalid S. Soliman International Business Information Management Association, USA Hofstra University, USA

Program Chair

Regina Connolly Dublin City University, Ireland


Advisory Committee

John F. Affisco, Hofstra University, USA
Hesham H. Ali, University of Nebraska at Omaha, USA
Emad Bataineh, Zayed University, UAE
Az-Eddine Bennani, Reims Management School, France
Emil Boasson, Ithaca College School of Business, USA
Imed Boughzala, GET/ Institut National des Telecommunications, France
Reggie Davidrajuh, Stavanger University College, Norway
Susana de Juana Espinosa, Universidad de Alicante, Spain
Xiuzhen Feng, Beijing University of Technology, China
Markus Helfert, Dublin City University, Ireland
Takao Ito, Ube National College of Technology, Japan
Mohammad Ayub Khan, Technologico de Monterrey, Mexico
Sherif Kamel, The American University in Cairo, Egypt
Nabil Mzoughi, University of Sousse, Tunisia
Christiane E. Metzner, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela
Roman Povalej, University of Karlsruhe (TH), Germany
Alcina Prata, ESCE, Portugal
Muhammad Najib Razali, Universiti Hussein Onn Malaysia, Malaysia
Joseph Sarkis, Clark University, USA 
Najib Saylani, Hofstra University, USA
Magdy Serour, University of Technology - Sydney, Australia
Mark Srite, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee,  USA
Salvador Treviño, Technologico de Monterrey, Mexico
Abraham G. van der Vyver, Monash University, South Africa
Dianne Wingham, Australia
Paul H.P. Yeow, Multimedia University, Malaysia
Shumaila Y. Yousafzai, Cardiff University, UK 

Program Committee

(program committee member's name appears on this list only after reviewing at least one paper) 

Abdulmohsen Abanumy, King Fahd Security College , KSA
Dhammika Abeysinghe, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
Mohamed Aborizka, Arab Academy for Science and Technology, Egypt
Nasrin Shah Abushakra, University of Michigan, USA
Adel Ismail Al-Alawi, University College of Bahrain, Bahrain
Mohsen  Akbari, University of  Tehran, Iran

Fahim Akhter, Zayed University, UAE
Abdollah Aghaie, K N Toosi University of Technology, Iran

Fayez Albadri, ADMA-OPCO, UAE
Nedra Bahri, University of Bizerte/Tunis, Tunisia Excellent Constructive review
Cleopatra Bardaki, Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece Excellent Constructive review
Ozlem Bak, University of Greenwich, UK Excellent Constructive review
Josef Basl, Prague University of Economics, Czech Republic 
Markus Bick, ESCP-EAP European School of Management, Germany

Djilali Benmahamed, INT Evry, France
Stefanie Betz, University of Karlsruhe, Germany
Kalyan Bollampally, INT, France Excellent Constructive review
Bouchaïb Bounabat, ENSIAS, Mohammed V – Souissi, Morocco
Mohamed Salim Bouhlel, University of Sfax, Tunisia
Jacques Boulay, ESSCA, France
R.H. Barbour, Unitec, New Zealand
Ahmed BinSubaih, University of Sheffield, UK
Karim Bourouni, ENIT, Tunisia
Maria Helena Lima Baptista Braz, Instituto Superior Técnico, UTLisbon, Portugal
Liz Burley, Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
Guendalina Capece, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Italy    
Luis V. Casaló, University of Zaragoza, Spain Excellent Constructive review

Bruce Cheek, University of Newcastle, Australia
Hsiao-Chi Chen, Chung Yuan Christian University, Taiwan,  Excellent Constructive review
Raymond Chiong, Swinburne University of Technology, Malaysia  Excellent Constructive review
Rodney J. Clarke,  The University of Wollongong, Australia
Jorge Valdés Conca, University of Alicante, Spain

Jan Mendoça Corrêa, University of Brasilia, Country: Brazil
Leonardo Cortez, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Venezuela
Brian Cusack, AUT, New Zealand Excellent Constructive review
Sagarmay Deb, University of Ballarat, Australia
Sri Deviravana, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Soumaya Ben Dhaou, ESG-UQAM, Canada

Mounir Dhibi, ENSIETA, France
Andriana Dimakopoulou, Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece Excellent Constructive review
Basil Dudin, Applied Science Private University,  Jordan
Amr Ali Eldin, Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands
Alexander Elsas, Frankfurt, Germany

Atlam ElSayed, University of Tokushima, Japan

Jean-Louis Ermine, GET/INT (Institut National des Télécommunications), France
Mohammad Eyadat,California State University Dominguez Hills, USA
Davood Farajian, K. N. Toosi Univ. of Tech., Iran
José L. Fuertes, Technical University of Madrid, Spain
Omar F. El-Gayar, Dakota State University, USA

Memon Abdul Ghafoor, University of Sindh, Pakistan
Norjihan bt Abdul Ghani, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Sami Gherib, University of Paris XII, France Excellent Constructive review
Robert Goodwin, Flinders University, Australia
Luis Borges Gouveia, University Fernando Pessoa, Portugal
Huong Ha, Monash University, Australia Excellent Constructive review
Francesca Guerzoni, Bruno Kessler Foundation, Italy
Gayah Gulam Haidar, MSC Malaysia, Malaysia
Wadee Al Halabi, University of Miami, USA
Houssein Hallani, University of Western Sydney, Australia
Raija Halonen, University of Oulu, Finland
Kieth Hales, Bond University, Australia
Suraya Hamid,University of Malaya, Malaysia
Hassen Hamouda, Institut Supérieur de l’ Informatique et de Multimedia, Tunisia
Muzaffar Hamzah, Universiti Malaysia Sabah,  Malaysia
Kevin K.W. Ho, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong Excellent Constructive review
Richard Holmes, Universitit Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
Ewa Huebner, University of Western Sydney, Australia
Nadeem Iftikhar, Aalborg University, Denmark
Joe Ilsever, Doug College, Canada Excellent Constructive review
Michael C. Jaeger, Berlin University of Technology, Germany Excellent Constructive review
Siavash Jandeh-Razmi, Razmitech Information Technology, New Zealand Excellent Constructive review
Sarabdeen Jawahitha, Prince Sultan University Country, KSA
Aida Matri Ben Jemaa, ISG Tunis, Tunisia  Excellent Constructive review

Nie Jin, Wuhan University, China
Nazean Jomhari, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Ann Johansson, University West, Sweden Excellent Constructive review
Damir Kalpic, University of Zagreb, Croatia
Ismail Kassou, Mohammed V Souissi University, Morocco 
Lami Kaya, Sharjah  University, UAE
Pankaj Kamthan, Concordia University, Canada
Nihat Kasap, Sabanci Universty, Turkey
Mohammed Attya Khaliefa, University of Minia, Egypt
Ahmad Khasawneh, Hashemite University, Jordan
Khalid Khawaja, American University in Dubai, UAE
Lefteris Kioses, Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece Excellent Constructive review
Marite Kirikova, Riga Technical University, Latvia
Hana Klcova, Tomas Bata University in Zlin, The Czech Republic
Gerhard F. Knolmayer, University of Bern, Switzerland
Girija Krishnaswamy, Australian Catholic University, Australia
Stefan Luckner, University of Karlsruhe, Germany
Jaiprakash T Lallchandani, DD University, India
Fotis Liarokapis,City University, UK  
Keri Logan, Massey University-Wellington Campus, New Zealand
Maria Augusta Soares Machado, IBMEC-RJ, Brasil
Garth MacKenzie, University of Maryland University College, USA
Muhammad Amir Malik, Mohammad Ali Jinnah University, Pakistan
Settapong  Malisuwan, Chulachomklao Royal Military Academy, Thailand

Amanda Mead, Macquarie University GSM, Australia
Mujeeb-u-Rehman Maree, University of Sindh Jamshoro, Pakistan
Ra’ed Masa’deh, The University of Nottingham, U.K.  Excellent Constructive review
Wilfred S. Manuela Jr., University of the Philippines, Philippines
Karen Neville, University College, Ireland
Diaa Eldin M. Nassar, Intel, USA
Tahir Naeem, COMSATS IIT, Pakistan
Eetu Niemi, University of Jyväskylä, Finland

Ahmad Shukri Mohd Noor, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Malaysia
Azah Anir Bt Norman, University of Malaya, Malaysia
Khamis Omar, PSUT, Jordan
Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud omira, Menia University, Egypt

Adrian Munteanu, University of Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Romania
Shastri L Nimmagadda, Curtin University of Technology, Australia
Asem Omari, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Germany
Roslina Othman, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia
Roberto Paiano, University of Salento, Italy

Tania Pavlou, Technological Institute of Thessaloniki, Greece Excellent Constructive review
Wayne Pease, University of Southern Queensland, Australia Excellent Constructive review
Krassie Petrova, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand Excellent Constructive review
Maurizio Pighin, University of Udine, Italy
Jacek Plodzien, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Catalin Popescu, Petroleum and Gas from Ploiesti, Romania

M Abdul Qadir, MAJU, Pakistan
Rafa E. Al-Qutaish, ÉTS – University of Quebec, Canada
Gianmarco Radice, University of Glasgow, Scotland
Leif Bloch Rasmussen,Copenhagen Business School, Denmark
Suhas Raut, Motorola India Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India
Muhammad Najib Razali, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia,Malaysia
Hajo A. Reijers, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Petteri Repo, National Consumer Research Centre, Finland Excellent Constructive review
João Rocha, University: Polytechnic of Porto, Portugal
Suhas Raut, Motorola India Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, India   
Medahalli V. Ramakrishna, Monash University, Australia

Hans Roeck, University: University of Rostock, Germany
Laura Anna Ripamonti, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy Excellent Constructive review
Katerina Pramatari, Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece   Excellent Constructive review

Hasan Al-Saedy, Skyline College, UAE
Maytham Safar, University: Kuwait  University, Kuwait

Mohammed Samaka, Qatar University, Qatar
Albert Henry Seymour Scott, Vocational Training Council, Hong Kong
Maha Shakir, Zayed University,  UAE Excellent Constructive review
Greg Skulmoski,  Zayed University, UAE 
Iryna Skrypnyk, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland
Ali  N. Al-Solbi, King Faisal Air Academy, KSA
Suresh Subramoniam, Prince Sultan University, KSA
Radwan Tahboub, Palestine Polytechnic University, Palestine 
Amine Nehari -Talet, KFUPM, KSA
Abdullah A. Al-Tameem, Al-Imam Muhammad Ibn Saud Islamic University , KSA Excellent Constructive review
Lau Bee Theng, Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus, Malaysia
Hamid Tohidi, Islamic Azad University-South Tehran Branch, Iran 
Gustavo A. Santana Torrellas, Mexican Oil Institute, Mexico
Elissar Toufaily, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada
Alexei Tretiakov, Massey University, New Zealand
Hanene Trichili, Sfax university (ISBS), Tunisia
Juan Pedro Caraça-Valente, University Politecnica de Madrid, Spain
Danie van der Westhuizen, University of Southern Queensland, Australia
Viacheslav Wolfengagen, Institute “JurInfoR-MSU”, Russia
David W. Wilson, Universit of London, UK  Excellent Constructive review

Chiou-Pirng Wang, Albany State University, USA
Jorge A. Wise, ITESM–Campus Monterrey, Mexico Excellent Constructive review
Anil R. Yardi, Walchand College of Engineering, India
Ameena Zafar, Muhammad Ali Jinnah University, Pakistan

Gregor Zellner, University of Regemsburg, Germany
Jia Zhou, Massey University, New Zealand

Lisandro Curia, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Argentina
Ian Beeson, University of the West of England, UK
Houssein Hallani, University of Western Sydney, Australia

Conference Themes

Possible conference topics of interest

Two New Themes

Privacy Issues in the Digital Age

Business Informatics

E-Business and Internet Computing
May include issues in
  • B2B and B2C Applications 
  • Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
  • E-Procurement and Web-based supply chain management 
  • Market-spaces: market portals, hubs, auctions
  • E-Learning, e-Training, and e-Teams 
  • Intranet and Extranet Business Applications 
  • Agents for Internet Computing 
  • Web Information Agents 
  • Application Service Providers
  • Case studies on Electronic Commerce  
  • Public sector applications of e-Commerce  
  • Interactive and Multimedia Web Applications
  • Object Orientation in Internet and Distributed Computing 
  • RFID, digital tags, and smart labels
  • Global positioning systems and service delivery

E-government Applications
May include issues in

  • E-government strategies and implementation procedures
  • E-government portals and their role in disseminating the use of e-government
  • E-government issues in government-to-citizens relationships
  • E-government issues in government-to-businesses relationships 
  • Intergovernmental issues in local and state e-governments
  • Legal and political issues in e-government
  • E-government and M-government best practices
  • Infrastructure requirements of hardware, software, communication technologies.
  • Social, technical, and economical aspects of e-government
M-Commerce Applications
May include issues in

  • Mobile commerce business models
  • Wireless application providers 
  • Global positioning systems and service delivery
  • M-commerce adoption and diffusion 
  • Social, legal, and security issues
  • M-commerce best practice
  • Research in M-commerce
  • M-commerce delivery modes
  • M-commece and financial services
  • M-commerce and customers' experience
Privacy Issues in the Digital Age
May include issues in
  • Ethical, social, and moral issues in an e-society
  • Computers, freedom and privacy
  • Human rights in a surveillance society
  • Boundaries for data protection and privacy
  • Identity Management systems
  • Law enforcement on the Internet
  • Electronic health information and privacy issues
  • Information retrieval, seeking and behaviours
  • The role of information in a knowledge era
Business Informatics
May include issues in
  • Methods and IS Architectures for a networked economy
  • Reference Models and Methods
  • Process Simulation and Optimization
  • Analytical Information Systems and Data Mining
  • Knowledge Engineering and Discovery
  • Information Quality Management
  • Information Quality Metrics and Assessment
  • Cost-benefit and impact analysis
  • Performance Indicators and Measurement systems
  • Business Informatics Curriculum Development
Information Systems
May include issues in

  • Customer relationship management 
  • Business process re-design (BPR)
  • Total quality management (TQM)
  • Cycle time reduction (CTR)
  • Supply Chain Management (SCM)
  • Virtual organization management
  • Outsourcing
  • End user Computing
  • Application Service Providers (ASP)
  • Telecommuting
  • IS Security
  • Just-in-time Inventory management
  • Data Centers
  • Modern information systems issues, trends, and challenges
Organizational Transformation
May include issues in

  • E-business integration
  • adoption and diffusion of emerging technologies
  • Managing emerging technologies
  • Telecommuting and employees productivity
  • Change management and organizational performance measures
  • Just-in-time training on emerging technologies
  • Polices and management issues on the adoption of emerging technologies
  • IS department role in transforming organizations
  • E-mail usage, monitoring, and privacy issues.
  • Organizational Issues on Systems Integration  
  • Organizational change
  • User information satisfaction
Enterprise Systems Integration and ERP
May include issues in

  • Enterprise Systems and competitive advantage
  • Enterprise Systems performance and evaluation
  • Enterprise Systems and Enterprise Application Integration 
  • Business Porcess Re-design
  • ERP package selection and implementation approaches
  • ERP Management
  • ERP and Industry Solutions
  • ERP market, ERP vendors strategies, and ERP software solutions
  • Middleware Integration 
  • Legacy Systems and migration issues
  • Client-Server Architecture
  • Extended ERP and web-based ERP
Decision Support Systems
and Artificial Intelligence

May include issues in

  • Strategic Decision Support Systems 
  • Group Decision Support Systems 
  • Applications of Expert Systems 
  • Transaction processing systems and online transactions
  • Data Warehouses and Datamining
  • Multimedia Database Applications
  • Web and Mobile Databases
  • Distributed Database Applications
  • Object-Oriented Database Systems
  • Database Security
  • Industrial Applications of Artificial Intelligence 
  • Fuzzy Logic and Neural Network applications
  • Coordination in Multi-Agent Systems 
  • Intelligent Social Agents and Distributed Artificial Intelligence Applications 
  • Case-Based Reasoning Systems
  • Knowledge-based Systems Engineering
  • Knowledge Management
Software Engineering and Technologies
May include issues in

  • Software engineering of e-business systems
  • Software frameworks for e-business systems
  • Software standards for e-business systems
  • Agent-mediated e-commerce
  • Knowledge extraction and search
  • Knowledge-based solutions
  • Prospects of the Semantic Web for e-commerce research and applications
  • Mass Personalization Technologies
  • User Modeling and Customer Profiling
  • Privacy and Anonymizing Applications
  • Data Mining techniques

Special Topics Sessions

The efforts of the Special Topics Sessions' Organizers will be recognized as follows:

  • The registration fee of the session organizer will be waived if at least 4 authors of invited papers register at the conference.
  • Session organizers names will appear on the conference proceedings as Associate Editors  

You can also submit a proposal to organize a special topics sessionworkshop, and/or tutorial. The of organizing a special topic session is that it brings together researchers and audience together to discuss a specific research question of interest and/or share your research efforts with others who have worked in the same area.  These sessions could result in joint research efforts and/or co-authorship of journal articles. Special topics session are highly beneficial if they are well organized.

Proposals to organize a special topic session should include the following information: name and address, e-mail of proposer, title of session, a 100-word description of the topic of the session, and a short description on how the session will be advertised. Usually, session proposers solicit papers from colleagues and researchers whose work is known to the session proposer. E-mail proposal to the conference chair.
Each special topic session will have at least 3 paper. The session chairs will be responsible for all aspects of their sessions; including, soliciting papers, reviewing, selecting, etc.  The review process for invited sessions will strictly follow the review process for regular submission.  Papers will be evaluated for originality, significance, clarity, and contribution. Each paper will be exposed to a full blind peer review by two reviewers in the topical area.  Final camera-ready papers will be reviewed by one reviewer. Papers must not have been previously published or currently submitted for publication elsewhere.

Virtual Presentations

Those who are unable to attend the conference in person but wish to participate in this major international event, virtual presentation is available. Virtual Presentation allow participants to submit papers for refereeing and publication in the conference proceedings, just like a regular paper.   Virtual participants will receive a full copy of the conference proceedings.  

In 7th IBIMA conference, there were more than 50 virtual presentations.

The review process for virtual presentations will strictly follow the review process for regular submissions. Papers will be evaluated for originality, significance, clarity, and contribution. Each paper will be exposed to a full blind peer review in most cases. Short papers will be reviewed by the editor.  Summary of review feedback/reports will be sent back to the author(s) in most cases.  All comments and suggestions should be addressed in the final submission. Papers must not have been previously published or currently submitted for publication elsewhere.

* Please note that a virtual presentation does not mean you are able to present by remote (e.g. Internet streaming or teleconferencing).

Important Dates

Important note: Please be advised to send your paper the earliest possible to allow us to receive the reviews in a timely fashion.  The review time tends to increase if you submit your paper right on the deadline date due to large number of submissions around deadlines.

  • 2nd Phase Paper Submission: closed 
  • Notification of Acceptance: Within 3 week from submission date (in most cases)
  • 2nd Phase Paper submission deadline: May 11, 2007
  • 2nd Phase Camera ready submission: May 30, 2007
  • 2nd Phase Registration fee deadline: May 30, 2007


The conference is closed

Conference Hotel

The Regency Airport Hotel in Dublin City Ireland is the official location for the 8th IBIMA Conference on Information Management in the Networked Economy.  The Regency Hotel is located 3km north of Dublin City centre on the main route to Dublin’s International Airport (6km), close to all major attractions-including Croke Park home of GAA a mere 10-15 minute walk, O'Connell Street, Clontarf Golf Club and Dublin City University.  This is a hotel that blends architectural charm, the main building dates back 200 years, with modern comfort. And now one of Dublin's finest and most diverse theaters is right on the Regency Airport Hotel's doorstep, The Helix. 

Please click on the Hotel link above for more details and directions.

How to get to the Hotel:
- Taxi: around 15 Euro from airport.
- Alirlink buses number 747 and 748 from airport to Dublin city centre, and leaves every 15 minutes. Single far is about 5 Euros. Then Local bus services from Downtown to Hotel regulrly depart from the arrivals terminal, prices are all subject to change.  This information is provided to assist participants without any guarantee.  For more information, please contact the hotel.

Special conference participants’ rates:

Single Room standard:          € 84 Euro per night 

Double Room standard:       € 109 Euro per night

Above-mentioned rates are daily, per room and include full Irish breakfast and all taxes.  Each conference participant will be responsible for charges related to his/her hotel room.

Reservation form (in pdf)


Nearby Hotel:

Dublin Skylon Hotel.  0.7 mile away from the conference hotel.  

For reservations:


Dublin City University Summer Accommodation

Around 10-15 min. walk from the conference hotel.  On campus deluxe rooms is €44 per person sharing B&B or €60 for single occupancy  in a double or twin ensuite including full Irish breakfast

For reservations:

The above hotel information is provided to assist conference participants. IBIMA nor conference organizers are not affiliated with any of the above-mentioned hotels and are not liable in anyway with hotel guest satisfaction, price change, ..etc.